GPS Control for Golf Course Pesticide Applications


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Below you will find our assemblage of industry terminology. If you have any questions regarding specific technologies or language, do not hesitate to contact us

Amperage: The strength of an electric current measured in amperes. The ampere, often shortened to amp, is the International System of Units (SI) unit of electric current. It is named after André-Marie Ampère (1775–1836), French mathematician and physicist, considered the father of electrodynamics. In practical terms, the ampere is a measure of the amount of electric charge passing a point in an electric circuit per unit time.

Augmentation:  When used in reference to satellite accuracy, augmentation is a system that supports wide-area or regional accuracy through the use of additional satellite-broadcast correction messages. This is referred to as a satellite-based augmentation system (SBAS).

Automatic Section Control: Automatic section control is a precision technology that has been readily adopted by agricultural producers over the past couple years and more recently in golf and turf sprayer applications.  Currently, equipment manufacturers and third‐party companies are offering systems that control sections, nozzles, and rows on sprayers and implements.  Simply, the technology turns application equipment OFF in areas that have been previously covered or ON and OFF based on digital mapping stored in the controller. 

Auto Steer:(see SmarTrax)

Base Station (for Slingshot®): An antenna installation site with electronic cell phone and internet communications equipment, usually placed on a high place with line of sight to satellites in space, to create a fixed reference point for RTK correction.

Base Station Network: A network of Slingshot® base stations installed around North America by Turflux that are used as a fixed reference point for correction (augmentation) signals to provide sub-inch location accuracy of a spray vehicle. 

Basic Conversion: A Turflux sprayer conversion package that is all inclusive of the hardware, installation labor, and satellite subscription fees needed to convert a flow based or pressure based golf course sprayer to take full advantage of satellite control technology and individual nozzle control with repeatable sub-inch accuracy.

Boom Control: is where a framework containing a group of nozzles (a boom) is controlled using manual switches to open all or close all of the nozzles on the boom. Spray booms in golf and turf applications typically cover a 6 to 7 foot wide spray swath. (see also Individual Nozzle Control)

CAN (or CAN bus): (for controller area network) is a vehicle bus standard designed to allow microcontrollers and devices to communicate with each other within a vehicle without a host computer. CAN bus is a message-based protocol, designed specifically for automotive applications but now also used in other areas such as aerospace, maritime, industrial automation and medical equipment. The first CAN controller chips, produced by Intel and Philips, came on the market in 1987. CAN bus is one of five protocols used in the on-board diagnostics (OBD)-II vehicle diagnostics standard. The OBD-II standard has been mandatory for all cars and light trucks sold in the United States since 1996.

CDMA: (for Code Division Multiple Access) is a channel access method used by various communication technologies. CDMA is an example of multiple access, where several transmitters can send information simultaneously over a single communication channel. This allows several users to share a band of frequencies. To permit this without undue interference between the users, CDMA employs spread-spectrum technology and a special coding scheme (where each transmitter is assigned a code). CDMA is used as the access method in many mobile phone standards.

CORS System (or Network): The National Geodetic Survey (NGS), an office of NOAA's National Ocean Service, manages a network of Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS) that provide Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data consisting of carrier phase and code range measurements in support of three dimensional positioning, meteorology, space weather, and geophysical applications throughout the United States, its territories, and a few foreign countries. The CORS network is a multi-purpose cooperative endeavor involving government, academic, and private organizations. The sites are independently owned and operated. Each agency shares their data with NGS, and NGS in turn analyzes and distributes the data free of charge. 

Calibration: Calibration is a comparison between measurements – one of known magnitude or correctness made or set with one device and another measurement made in as similar a way as possible with a second device. Sprayer calibration is typically performed by measuring the actual output of a nozzle or boom and comparing it to the output set in the controller.

Cell Tower: A cell site or cell tower is a cellular telephone site where antennas and electronic communications equipment are placed, usually on a radio mast, tower or other high place, to create a cell (or adjacent cells) in a cellular network. The elevated structure typically supports antennas, and one or more sets of transmitter/receivers transceivers, digital signal processors, control electronics, a GPS receiver for timing, primary and backup electrical power sources, and sheltering.

Chemicals: The term “chemicals” typically includes pesticides and nutrient sources to protect turf and insure optimal plant development.

Correction Signal: signals to correct the integrity for satellite position errors, satellite clock/time errors and errors induced by the estimation of the delay of the signal while crossing the ionosphere. See also SBAS (Satellite Based Augmentation System)

Digital Mapping: (also called digital cartography) is the process by which a collection of data is compiled and formatted into a virtual image. The primary function of this technology is to produce maps that give accurate representations of a particular area. The technology also allows the calculation of distances from once place to another.

Droplet Size: A drop or droplet is a small column of liquid, bounded completely or almost completely by free surfaces. The term droplet is a diminutive form of 'drop' - and as a guide is typically used for liquid particles of less than 500 µm diameter. In golf and turf spray applications droplets that are too small can be susceptible to wind drift and miss the intended target, and droplets that are too large may not produce the desired adherence to the plant required by applications.

Dual Nozzles: Nozzle locations are spaced according to their spray pattern to cover the entire width of a spray boom with a uniform spray pattern. Nozzles may be operated in pairs electrically (dual nozzles) either in the same location or in an equidistant spacing to provide a greater range in flow possibilities to achieve the desired output of the operator.

e-ChemSaver: Electric solenoid nozzle body check valves made by TeeJet Technologies which are used to turn individual spray tips on and off electrically. 

Environmentally Sensitive Areas: An environmentally sensitive area (ESA) is a type of designation for an agricultural area which needs special protection because of its landscape, wildlife or historical value. Spraying pesticides and fertilizers in these areas is typically prohibited by law.

Environmental Sustainability: Environmental sustainability involves making decisions and taking actions that are in the interests of protecting the natural world, with particular emphasis on preserving the capability of the environment to support human life. Environmental sustainability is about making responsible decisions that will reduce your long term impact on the environment and the natural world.

Field Computer: The “in cab” brains that controls your sprayer functions. Raven models include Envisio Pro II, Viper 4, and Viper Pro.

Field Hub: A Slingshot® Field Hub is the modem hardware installed on a spray vehicle for the purpose of communicating over Raven’s Wireless Management Services (WMS) with Slingshot® Base Stations for position corrections using the Slingshot® Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS)

Flow: is the measurement of the volume of liquid over a period of time to pass a given point. When related to golf and turf sprayers it is usually measured in gallons per minute by a flowmeter measuring the output of a spray application. 

GLONASS: (Russian: ГЛОНАСС, IPA: [ɡlɐˈnas]; Глобальная навигационная спутниковая система), acronym for "Globalnaya navigatsionnaya sputnikovaya sistema" or "Global Navigation Satellite System", is a space-based satellite navigation system operated by the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces. It provides an alternative to Global Positioning System (GPS) and is the only alternative navigational system in operation with global coverage and of comparable precision.

GNSS: (Global Navigation Satellite System) A satellite navigation or sat nav system is a system of satellites that provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning with global coverage. It allows small electronic receivers to determine their location (longitude, latitude, and altitude) to high precision (within a few metres) using time signals transmitted along a line of sight by radio from satellites. The signals also allow the electronic receivers to calculate the current local time to high precision, which allows time synchronisation. A satellite navigation system with global coverage may be termed a global navigation satellite system or GNSS.

GPS: The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based satellite navigation system that provides location and time information in all weather conditions, anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. The system provides critical capabilities to military, civil and commercial users around the world. It is maintained by the United States government and is freely accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver.

Galileo (satellite navigation): Galileo is a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) currently being built by the European Union (EU) and European Space Agency (ESA), intended for civilian use only. The €5 billion project is named after the Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei. One of the aims of Galileo is to provide an alternative high-precision positioning system upon which European nations can rely, independently from the Russian GLONASS and US GPS systems, in case they would be disabled by their operators. 

Headlands: A Headland, in agriculture, is the area at each end of a planted field. In some areas of the United States, this area is known as the Turnrow. It is used for turning around with farm implements during field operations and is the first area to be harvested to minimize crop damage. The rows run perpendicular to the lay of the field and are usually two, three or four times the width of the implement used for planting the field.

Hotspot: A hotspot is a site that offers Internet access over a wireless local area network (WLAN) through the use of a router connected to a link to an Internet service provider. Hotspots typically use Wi-Fi technology.

Individual Nozzle Controlis where a switching device is tied into each individual nozzle (or nozzle location with dual-nozzles) providing the ability to control the opening and closing of individual nozzles for a more accurate spray application. Nozzle spacing in golf and turf applications typically cover a 10 or 20 inch wide spray pattern. (see also Boom Control)

Irregular Shapes: The shape of areas to be sprayed other than rectangular or square shapes are considered irregular. Since sprayers are typically configured with a straight spray boom perpendicular to the sprayer’s typical travel direction, areas of application that are not rectangular require an adaptation by the sprayer for efficient applications.

Line of Sight: The direct line between two points, typically referring to an antenna mounted on a spray vehicle and another device communicating with the sprayer.

Mapping: (see Digital Mapping)

Network Operations Center (NOS): Raven Industries support center for troubleshooting and maintaining connected Slingshot® devices.

Non-Target Areas: Areas, typically adjacent to a spray zone, that should not be sprayed (because of pesticide regulations) or are not selected to be sprayed in a particular application.

Nozzle Wear: Nozzle wear is indicated by an increase in nozzle capacity and by a change in the spray pattern, in which the distribution (uniformity of spray pattern) deteriorates and increases drop size. 

OmniSTAR: OmniSTAR is a satellite based augmentation system (SBAS) service provider. OmniSTAR correction signals are proprietary, and a subscription must be bought from the OmniSTAR Corporation to receive a subscription authorization.  OmniSTAR uses geostationary satellites in 8 regions covering most of the landmass of each inhabited continent on Earth. To access the OmniSTAR solution the user must have an OmniSTAR capable receiver.

Off-Target Applications: Areas that receive a spray application that should not be sprayed (because of pesticide regulations) or are not selected to be sprayed in a particular application.

Overlap: to cover and extend beyond or have in common with (something else). In spray applications overlap occurs when a spray application extends beyond its intended area and covers an area already applied with a second application known as overspray.

Overspray (or Over Application): To spray (or apply) a volume of product over an area at an application rate above the intended (or label recommended) volume for the product being applied.

Pass-to-Pass (accuracy): Pass-to-pass is most applicable for machine guidance applications. One way that spray vehicle positioning accuracy is measured is a pass-to-pass value that states how close (in distance) two runs would be in a short period of time. Pass-to-pass distances are usually reported as the mean variance over a 15 minute period of time.

Positioning Calculation (for GNSS): The global navigation satellite system (GNSS) positioning for receiver's position is derived through a calculation algorithm. In essence, a GNSS receiver measures the transmitting time of GNSS signals emitted from four or more GNSS satellites and these measurements are used to obtain its position (i.e., spatial coordinates) and reception time.

Pressure: (symbol: p or P) is the ratio of force to the area over which that force is distributed. Pressure is force per unit area applied in a direction perpendicular to the surface of an object. Gauge pressure (also spelled gage) is the pressure relative to the local atmospheric or ambient pressure typically measured in pounds per square inch (psi). 

Pulse Width Modulation: Pulse-width modulation (PWM) is utilized to vary chemical application rates spatially by placing an electric solenoid at each individual nozzle. These solenoids are then pulsed at different duty cycles which are the time the solenoid is on over the period. The input to the solenoid is a square wave having a duty cycle being the ratio of the time the nozzle is on versus the time the nozzle is off. A 100% duty cycle indicates full flow through the nozzle and a 0% duty cycle produces no flow through the nozzle. The variations between these two conditions produce the variable amount of fluid coming out at the nozzle. The spray mixture is mixed at a constant rate but the amount applied per unit area is varied.

RTK: Real Time Kinematic (RTK) satellite navigation is a technique used to enhance the precision of position data derived from satellite-based positioning systems, being usable in conjunction with GPS, GLONASS and/or Galileo. It uses measurements of the phase of the signal′s carrier wave, rather than the information content of the signal, and relies on a single reference station to provide real-time corrections, providing up to centimeter-level accuracy. With reference to GPS in particular, the system is commonly referred to as Carrier-Phase Enhancement, or CPGPS.

Raven Industries: Raven Industries is a publically traded company located in Sioux Falls, SD and is best known in the golf and turf industry for its precision sprayer control products. Raven has a storied history going back to its formation in 1956. The Flow Controls division was created in 1991 and was later named the Applied Technology Division. The company introduced a new variable-rate controller with GPS technology for agricultural applications in 1996, and in 2011 introduced Slingshot®, a first of its kind, revolutionary suite of products and services centered around high speed wireless Internet connectivity.

Remote Support: Support by Turflux or Raven using the remote access capabilities of the Raven Field Computers to connect to an end-user’s spray vehicle field computer over the internet to run or monitor a spray application.

Repeater: In telecommunications, a repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal and retransmits it at a higher level or higher power, or onto the other side of an obstruction, so that the signal can cover longer distances.

Runoff: Surface runoff (also known as overland flow) is the flow of water or other liquid that occurs when excess liquid flows over the earth's surface. This might occur because soil is saturated to full capacity, or because the liquid is applied to an impervious surface.

SBAS: A satellite-based augmentation system (SBAS) is a system that supports wide-area or regional augmentation through the use of additional satellite-broadcast messages. Such systems are commonly composed of multiple ground stations, located at accurately-surveyed points. The ground stations take measurements of one or more of the GNSS satellites, the satellite signals, or other environmental factors which may impact the signal received by the users. Using these measurements, information messages are created and sent to one or more satellites for broadcast to the end users. SBAS is sometimes synonymous with WADGPS, wide-area DGPS.

Satellite: In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as the Moon.

Skips: (skip - to miss or omit) When a sprayer application is performed adjacent to a previous application pass resulting in an unapplied area between passes, that was meant to be applied, it is referred to as a “skip”.

Slingshot: Slingshot® delivers unrivaled connectivity through mobile networks for access to a groundbreaking system of RTK correction signals, online services, sophisticated data management capabilities, precision equipment and instant in-field support and service. Raven has propelled precision to an entirely new level with this innovative product. Slingshot® Combines wireless connectivity with robust online tools and top-shelf precision hardware to upgrade your level of control and efficiency.

Key Benefits include:

  • Repeatable accuracy over 30 miles or more with a single Slingshot® correction source
  • Zero line-of-sight signal limitation
  • Real time high-speed Internet access in the field
  • Connectivity through major telephone networks in North America
  • CORS network compatibility

Live, remote Slingshot® tech support without ever leaving the spray vehicle

SmarTrax MD:SmarTrax MD is a steering system that uses a mechanical drive unit (MDU) attached to the steering wheel for mechanical guidance of the spray vehicle direction. System override occurs when the operator turns the steering wheel manually.

Sprayer Conversion: The installation of sprayer controls onto an existing sprayer, without the need to purchase a completely new sprayer, giving it the capability to accurately control the application of product by using GPS technology and individual nozzle control.

Static Accuracy: The accuracy of mapping and storing coordinates, in a map file, compared to their accuracy over time.

Sub-Inch: Usually used in accuracy measurements, this is related to measurements where the typical variance is than one inch in total.

Tilt Sensor: hardware installed on a spray vehicle to compensate for the tilt of a spray vehicle with its actual location on the earth.

Turflux:  The word Turflux is derived from the words turf and flux which are defined as follows:

1. Turf: (/tərf/) grass and the surface layer of earth held together by its roots. Turf may refer to grass, either natural or artificial, including:

  • Sod, the surface layer of ground consisting of a mat of grass and grass roots, sometimes used as a construction material
  • Lawn, an area of grass maintained for decorative or recreational use
  • Golf course turf and other manicured sporting greens, or
  • Artificial turf, a man-made surface manufactured from synthetic materials, made to look like natural grass

2. Flux: (/fləks/) The word flux comes from Latin: fluxus means "flow", and fluere is "to flow". The action or process of flowing or flowing out.

In the various subfields of physics, there exist two common usages of the term flux, in transport phenomena and surface integrals, each with rigorous mathematical frameworks. A simple and ubiquitous concept throughout physics and applied mathematics is the flow of a physical property in space, frequently also with time variation.

In our case, a forward looking company of experienced employees implementing the latest technology in global navigation satellite systems with golf and turf sprayers for the improvement of pesticide and fertilizer application accuracy at a tremendous cost benefit for the investment made while improving the environmental impact of each application.

Unintentional Application: A spray application that occurs in an area that was not planned for the application of product.

Virtual Reference Station (VRS): VRS networks use real-time kinematic (RTK) solutions to provide high-accuracy, RTK Global Navigation Satellite Systems.  The Virtual Reference Station (VRS) method extends the use of RTK to a whole area of a reference station network. Operational reliability and accuracy depend on the density and capabilities of the reference station network.

WAAS: The Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) is an air navigation aid developed by the Federal Aviation Administration (prime contractor Raytheon Company) to augment the Global Positioning System (GPS), with the goal of improving its accuracy, integrity, and availability. Essentially, WAAS is intended to enable aircraft to rely on GPS for all phases of flight, including precision approaches to any airport within its coverage area.

WiFi: also spelled Wifi or WiFi, is a local area wireless technology that allows an electronic device to exchange data or connect to the internet using 2.4 GHz UHF and 5 GHz SHF radio waves. The name is a trademark name, and is a play on the audiophile term Hi-Fi. The Wi-Fi Alliance defines Wi-Fi as any "wireless local area network (WLAN) products that are based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' (IEEE) 802.11 standards". However, since most modern WLANs are based on these standards, the term "Wi-Fi" is used in general English as a synonym for "WLAN". Only Wi-Fi products that complete Wi-Fi Alliance interoperability certification testing successfully may use the "Wi-Fi CERTIFIED" trademark.

WMS: (Wireless Management Services) is Raven’s and Turflux’s framework to remain connected to each Slingshot® product deployed. This connection allows Raven’s Network Operations Center (NOC) and Turflux’s Remote Support to troubleshoot and maintain connected devices. A WMS License is required for access to these services.

WOTUS: Waters of the United States as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the Clean Water Act and any subsequent agency rules.


All facts and definitions have been collected from Turflux experts, Wikipedia, and Raven Industries. 

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